(Vocabulary) “vocabulary is a combination of a lexeme

(Vocabulary) Definition of vocabulary The acquisition of vocabulary skills is considered a very essential element of the development of English skills. So, it plays a serious significance role for foreign language teaching and learning (Nation, I. S. 2013). The final purpose of mastering each language is to speak accurately. For this reason, any precise language has its terminology that diverges from the opposite languages. Vocabulary is the core factor of language skill that affords much of the idea for the way learners speak, concentrate, study, and write (Richards &Renadya, 2002). In other words, vocabulary is a place that requires Learners of the language to get greater demanding situations and to work regularly and independently inside and outside the classroom to explicit their thoughts and attitude to talk correctly and productively in both procedures either spoken or written. Hence, several researchers have provided different definitions of the vocabulary. Ur, 1996, p. 60 said that “Vocabulary could be described as the words which are taught by teachers in the foreign language”. It is obvious that every set of vocabulary could make up for greater than simply one word, but it combines right into a single meaning.  Vocabulary is a list or set of words or phrases that speakers of a particular language may use (Hatch &Brown, 1995, p. 1). Vocabulary could be defined as a group of words that are used for the purpose of communication.On the other hand, as argued by Richards & Platt and Platt (1992) “vocabulary is a combination of a lexeme that contains of either single or compound words and idioms”. Moreover, as mentioned by Roget (1980, p. 1036), vocabulary could be the following: a.       A group of defined or translated words of a language.b.      Every word of a language.c.       Expressions of a particular subject, field and culture. Based on the definitions and descriptions above, vocabulary represents all words that educators and learners operate during the process of teaching and learning. This process requires the application of various features of lexical knowledge and parts of speech besides, the usage of those applications to recognize the productive and receptive skills (Nation, I. S. 2013). On the other side, according to Todd (1987) “there is no accurate definition for vocabulary. A word creates four parts which are semantic, an orthographic, lexical and morphological. . A semantic word distinguishes the difference between objects that may be morphologically identical but changes in meaning.  A lexical word discusses all the forms a word can take and which are clearly related by meaning as one. The orthographic word has space on either side of it. A morphological word considers form only”. The importance of vocabulary in EFL language teaching and learning Vocabulary is the key aspect in language communication which makes it a very important aspect in language teaching and learning. Most learners are focusing on the grammar of the language but they still are not able to speak as expected. Hence, the power of words of a language makes a huge different regarding the success of encountering a language effectively. For example, the lack of vocabulary knowledge would lead to many problems in conducting a successful interaction (Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. 2014).  According to Wilkins, 1972 “learners without grammar can process something but learners without vocabulary can process nothing “. Furthermore, EFL learners with a very poor vocabulary would face challenges to communicate with native speakers. Hence, only with a powerful vocabulary knowledge, learners could master the others skills, practice the language, convey thoughts and attitudes plus mange the discourse (Krashen, 1993). McCarthy, 1990 said that “it is not important how well learners acquired in a language or how well they master in grammar skills, since there is no words they will not be able to talk or express meaningful ideas for  purposeful incomes “. The same claim was raised by Rivers (1983). He argued on the importance of the acquisition of a sufficient vocabulary. He said that “Without a wide and rich vocabulary, we will be unable to use the structures and functions that been learned for understandable communication.” So, it is very obvious that vocabulary is more important that grammar and especially for learners who are in need to learn, increase their words to achieve the meaning without failures in communication. Therefore, to ensure the students’ advancement in acquiring the four skills of the language which is relying upon the learning of vocabulary and the utilization of that information in a specific circumstance. It is clearly that Lexical play a vital component in the EFL classroom in light of the fact that without knowing the words, it is hard to think about the language (Rivers, 1981). In actuality, instructors must try to help students to enhance their vocabulary skills which considered as an essential measure of the procedure of English language learning. Instructors need to give important standards to vocabulary advancement since learning vocabulary needs a method and to influence considerable to process, students ought to procure vocabulary in appropriate situations. Types of Vocabulary The acquisition of vocabulary considered a difficult process in which learners need to go through the understanding of two types of vocabulary which are active vocabulary and passive vocabulary (Laufer, B., & Goldstein, Z. 2004). Learners are required to comprehend the difference between those kinds of vocabulary explained as the following:   1. Active Vocabulary According to Harmer, 1998 “productive vocabulary is known asa group of words that speaker can understand and produce properly in their speaking and writing “. This type of vocabulary are used in verbal and written processes. Therefore, active vocabulary is the one learners can produce by recalling it from memory in order to express their ideas and attitude to others (Webb, 2005). As stated by Szpotowicz and Kurpaska, 2012 “the active understanding of a word involves the skill to be able to remember the sound that signifies the word in the language and the ability to pronounce it correctly”.In other words, active vocabulary presents two forms which are writing and speaking. So, when individual practices the language, the words that are actively used either writing or speaking would be concerned with the ability of learners to recall them (Derradji, H, 2016).             2. Passive Vocabulary Passive vocabulary indicates the words that can be recognized and comprehend by the learners, but quite challenging to be recalled or used. Passive vocabulary is usually found in reading or listening. This type of vocabulary is called receptive vocabulary. So, learners just receive those type of vocabulary but they do not produce them (Nation, 2001). In addition, Hiebert and Kamil (2005) said that “receptive vocabulary is a set of words that learners could assign their meanings while the process of listening or reading”. In other words, receptive vocabulary refers to any word that individuals could comprehend while they come across in listening or reading tasks but quite difficult to use it in writing of speaking. Hence, it is clear that receptive vocabulary is larger than productive vocabulary. As described by Richards and Rodgers (1987) “One’s reading vocabulary is typically larger than his/ her writing vocabulary and based on that, listening vocabulary is clearly greater than speaking vocabulary”. To sum up, vocabulary is found in four classifications which are isolated into two units, speaking and writing vocabulary, conversely, listening and reading vocabulary. In the interim, speaking vocabulary is the words that individuals deliver and use in their discourse. While writing vocabulary is an arrangement of words that one’s utilization in an alternate types of writing, for example, article, story… and so forth. Then again, reading vocabulary is word in printed content that we can grasp and perceive when reading. While listening vocabulary are those words that individuals hear and comprehend when they are talking with different people (Lehr, F., Osborn, J., & Hiebert, 2004).  Pikulski &Templeton (2004), said that vocabulary characterized into two sorts, oral and function. Oral vocabulary indicates to the collection of listening and speaking vocabulary while function vocabulary indicates generally to the collection of reading and writing vocabularies”. The Purpose of Teaching VocabularyEFL educators emphasize that the acquisition of vocabulary in language learning is a basic element in learning any language. However, the process of teaching a foreign language is one of the most difficult mission for teachers since its fundamental features are concerned with the students’ capabilities to utilize the language skills and its components which create the importance requirement of learning vocabulary instruction to make learners able to use the four skills of the language. This fact has made the vocabulary teaching more essential for the language development (Walters, 2004).According to Pikulski and Templeton, 2004 “educators are concerned on the importance of teaching vocabulary for EFL learners for two reasons. First, teaching vocabulary would simplify the process of reading texts since the meaning of words are important to understand the entire text. Second, students with high load of words would be able to practice them in various fields rather than education such as culture and social”. Schmidt, 2000, has introduced some important principles of teaching vocabulary as listed:a- Build a huge sight of vocabulary.b- Included new words with preceding words.c- Offer a number of encounters with a word.d- Promotes deep stage of processing.e- Facilitate imaging.f- Make new word “real” through connecting them to the pupil’s word in a few way.g- Use range techniques.h- Inspire impartial learning strategies. Hence, educators are required to be aware of all those principles for appropriate result of vocabulary instruction.