Waste (2016) stated that solid wastes embodies both

Waste
matter from food is now gaining attention with many nations and their
respective governments. Lin et. al. (2009) stated that the development of an
economy will ultimately leave a mark in the food chain. Thyberg (2015)
supported this by finding that the establishment of food waste prevention and
recovery in the United States has started to become a priority. Abdelaal (2017)
enforced this by stating that food loss is a large and immediate problem faced
by countless countries.

            Squandering food has an impact on
many aspects in one’s daily life. Killeen (2016) stated that solid wastes
embodies both environmental and social aspects which are related to the food
chain, such as food distribution. Zaman (2016) pointed out that there is a
challenge in properly disposing food scraps as it has a negative impact on the
environment because of greenhouse gases. Lin et. al. (2009) also found that
because the problem of biological wastes has been overlooked and lacks more
detailed knowledge, this may lead to serious health problems.

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            The effect of food refuse on
numerous communities have now started to gain attention, and thus, people are
looking into the potential ways food waste can become beneficial to help solve
this growing problem, or can be more effectively managed. Omar et. al. (2015)
discussed that disposed food can be used as a potential energy source that can
be used in Saudi Arabia using a waste-to-energy facility. Gallardo et. al.
(2016) proposed that detailed methods of waste management should also be
focused on universities due to it being a source of many for work and study.
Cheng (2016) has found that fish feed is a demand in Hong Kong and mainland
China, and thus forms to make it from food refuse.

Solid
wastes are a growing problem that many experts agree can be very significant if
it does not get much attention. Gustavsson (2011) found that approximately one-third
of food produced for human consumption is disposed of. Because the population
and consumption growth are continuing to increase, this will lead to a higher
need for food, and thus may lead to a greater need to maximize and use natural
resources, such as land, energy and air (Godfray et. al., 2010). To further
prove the demand of the consumers, Garnett (2014) pointed out that because of
the change in weather, the production of food cannot be predicted and will
become much more difficult in a worldwide scale.

Due
to the increase in complexity in managing food loss, many experts utilized
their expertise in their given fields to address the issue. Thyberg (2015)
stated that because of the increasing complexity biological wastes have made,
an evaluation framework which focuses on mitigating solid wastes was developed
to make a more sustainable process in managing them. Jagau and Vyrastekova
(2017) proposed that an information campaign which aims to spread awareness on
the importance of managing disposed food can contribute to the ongoing problem.
Hyde et. al. (2003) suggested that the collection of the food scraps can be
valorized into compost.

There
is a need to research on methods or processes that utilizes compost from organic
wastes to understand the potential dangers solid waste can bring to the
environment. Setti et. al. (2016) stated that squandering food may cause a
depletion in natural resources, such as water, and a loss of biodiversity.
McCarthy (2017) found that consumers who have a preference for natural food,
waste much of their food, and a number of consumers have no knowledge on the
threat organic waste can become to the environment. More importantly, Tucker
(2016) discovered that “the increase in food waste increases with the number of
people living in the same house, and in the number of younger people.”

Numerous studies have been found that food waste is
a constantly growing problem. Diggelman (1998) indicated that around 50 million
tons of dry, organic matter produced by photosynthesis each day become garbage,
or waste. Sim & Wu (2010) emphasized that because of this growing problem
of municipal solid wastes due to mismanagement, there is a greater need to find
more sustainable processes to treat and deal with this problem.

            It
has also been suggested that many countries experience and treat food waste as
a critical problem. Tucker & Farelly (2016) stated that in terms of
minimizing waste in New Zealand, wastes that come food is treated as high
priority. Cheng & Lo (2016) noted that Hong Kong faces and treats this
problem seriously, as their landfills will be saturated by 2020. Thyberg (2015)
observed that the United States has a growing interest in food waste management
programs. Parry, Bleazard and Okawa(2015) added that the loss and improper
wastes of food at every stage in the food chain is a serious problem that is
being faced in Japan.

            Data
from several studies suggest that biological waste is becoming a global issue,
and may specifically affect the environmental and social aspects. Gustavsson,
Cederberg, and Sonesson (2011) stated that approximately a third of all food
produced globally for human consumption is wasted. Parry, et. al. (2015)
supported this by emphasizing the loss of food in the food chain must be
treated as a serious concern. Thyberg further stated that because of large
amounts of food wasted, it is increasingly being gained attention as a serious
environmental and economic problem.

            Many
studies identified the possible ways to manage food refuse. Lo and Woon (2016)
planned on creating the wastes into a demanded product, such as fish feeds, or
compost. Bak & Coggins (2014) concluded that utilizing a unit-based pricing
system, or UPS, to manage food waste was able to greatly reduce its volume.

            An
alternative way in managing organic wastes is through the process of
composting. Piñero (2009) found that compost itself can generate income for the
community due to it being a marketable product, as well as lessens the need for
developing landfills. Xie (2010) also added that aerobic composting is feasible
in managing food waste due to the final reduction rate of the waste being very
evident. Additionally, Worden (2003) stated that composting allows organic
matter and nutrients to be reused into a useful product for both the person and
the community.

            One
notable method in the management of food refuse is vermicomposting, a similar
process to composting but applies vermiculture more than heat.  Ali et. al. (2015) stated that
vermicomposting and composting is an environmentally friendly approach in
managing food waste. It is also stated that the end-product, the compost, can
be used for the production of biogas. Hanc and Pliva (2013) discovered that in
adding kitchen biological wastes for vermicomposting, some nutrients in the
soil content were increased, such as Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Nitrogen,
and Phosphorus.

However, these studies have failed to recognize the
compost and its processes in making them face. Ng et. al. (2017) developed an
order for managing waste matter and listed composting as one of the least
useful processes. Lo et. al. (2016) noted that the need for compost in Hong
Kong is low due to it having decreasing activities on agriculture. Many studies
have reported other numerous, effective measures that cities can employ in
dealing with food wastes, but these approaches become increasingly unreliable
when it is only employed at a small vicinity, such as school grounds. Piñero
added that as communities try in finding a better method to solve food wastes
in an environmentally friendly way, composting is ideal as it does not burn
fossil fuels, nor does it pollute the sources of water.

            Other
numerous processes that can be applied in various cities, such as biogas
production, has been extensively studied. However, less attention has been made
at composting, specifically vermicomposting. Despite the importance of
vermicomposting, few researchers have studied the feasibility of composts with
varying soil contents, as these studies do not show a difference between different
types of organic matter, such as the nutrients of vegetable peelings to that of
fruits or egg shells. The gap this research would like to identify is the
difference in soil content using different types of food wastes for the
compost.

            However,
it is unclear whether the process of vermicomposting can be modified to scale
the size of a small community, such as the school community of La Salle Green
Hills. Vermicomposting is usually done on personal homes, and it reduces the
wastes produced on that particular home. A school community such as La Salle
Green Hills produces large amounts of food that can be fed to both the students
and the staff. As other studies only reviewed and researched on the personal
use of this process, the feasibility of vermicomposting in a larger scale
environment is still inconclusive.

            The
aim of this paper is to make different composts comprised of different organic
wastes, which will be later experimented on to know the difference in soil
content and to identify the better product. The aim is to also help in making
La Salle Green Hills a self-sustainable community by utilizing waste matter.
Another purpose is to create a product that can be generally used by everyone.

            This
research studies on the composts with varying soil contents. Three different
composts with different organic wastes that are obtained
from the school will be made. Using African nightcrawlers as the worm species,
or Eudrilus eugeniae, the food wastes
will undergo vermicomposting to create the final product. Using simple testing,
the composts will be assessed in their pH levels. Using expert testing, the
composts will be assessed with soil content and other soil quality traits that
can be useful in planting. This project will be done for 3 months.