O’Donnell supervision iii. Direction encompasses all hierarchical

O’Donnell as the interpersonal aspect of managing by which subordinates are led to understand and contribute effectively and efficiently to the attachment of enterprise objective. All these definitions, therefore, categorize the elements of direction as:

i. Issuing instructions

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ii. Supervision

iii. Motivation

iv. Leadership

v. Communication

Motivation, leadership and communication have been discussed as separate chapters in this book. Issue of instructions and supervision, is the core managerial role. This has already been covered in our preliminary chapters; thus, it is repeated here. Issue of instructions is related to the communication function of the organization. Supervision is inbuilt with the leadership and control functions of the organization.

Some of the characteristics of direction are:

i. Direction follows the principle of scalar chair, i.e., managers at the top level direct middle-level managers, who in turn direct operation-level people, who implement the plans

ii. Direction does not end just by giving instructions; it also calls for monitoring of performance of subordinates, i.e., supervision

iii. Direction encompasses all hierarchical levels in the organization. Every manager at his/her level of function needs to give direction to people, to accomplish organizational goals and objectives

iv. Direction is a continuous function, i.e., once managers give direction, the process does not end. At every stage, managers need to guide, teach, motivate and lead his subordinates

v. Direction essentially deals with the human factor

With this introductory discussion on direction, subsequent three chapters discuss on motivation, leadership and communication, the three core functions of direction.